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Juan Ruiz, an intensely alert, individual early poet, composed the , an anonymous elegiac comedy.The result mingled eroticism with devotion and invited readers to interpret often-equivocal teachings.Oriental learning entered Christian Spain with the capture (1085) of Toledo from the Muslims, and the city became a centre of translation from Oriental languages.An anonymous translation from Arabic (1251) of the beast fable , was translated likewise through Arabic, with other collections of Eastern stories.Alfonso, in whose chancery Castilian replaced Latin, mandated translations and compilations aimed at fusing all knowledge—Classical, Oriental, Hebrew, and Christian—in the vernacular.These works, some under his personal editorship, include the great legal code Las Siete Partidas (“ 711 and completed by his son Sancho IV, was Spain’s most influential medieval work.By 711, when the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula began, Latin spoken there had begun its transformation into Romance.Tenth-century glosses to Latin texts in manuscripts belonging to the monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla and Silos, in north-central Spain, contain traces of a vernacular already substantially developed.
Women were also writing in Spain during the Roman period: Serena, believed to have been a poet; Pola Argentaria, the wife of Lucan, whom she is thought to have assisted in writing his Latin literature: Ancient Latin literature.
Vernacular chroniclers mention many other heroic minstrel narratives, now lost, but, as a result of the incorporation of these narratives into chronicles, themes and textual passages can be reconstructed.
Heroic narratives partially recovered include A major influence on prose was exercised by Arabic.
Chivalric romances of the Arthurian or Breton cycle, which had been circulating in translation, partially inspired Spain’s first romance of chivalry and first novel, —the oldest known version of which, dating from 1508, was written in Spanish by Garci Rodríguez (or Ordóñez) de Montalvo, although it may have begun circulation in the early 14th century—is another chivalric romance related to Arthurian sources.
It enthralled the popular imagination through the 16th century with its sentimental idealism, lyrical atmosphere, and supernatural adventure.